Urography

March 17 20:39 2019 Print This Article

Urography is used to check the kidneys and the tubes that drain them. It may be used to look at the size and shape of the bladder. It is often called an intravenous urogram. Pregnant women are not advised to undergo an intravenous urogram unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks to the unborn foetus. The only serious complication of an intravenous pyelography is allergy to the iodine-containing dye that is used.

Such an allergy is rare, but it can be dramatic and even lethal. Intravenous pyelography are most often done to assess structural abnormalities or obstruction to urine flow. If kidney function is at issue, more films are taken sooner to catch the earliest phase of the process. Retrograde urography is also an x-ray examination of the urinary system. It is usually performed as part of a telescopic examination of the bladder, made under a general anaesthetic. Anyone suffering from severe liver, heart or kidney diseases may be given special instructions by a specialist before undergoing the examination.

Several contrast X-ray techniques (see X-RAYS) may be used to detect cysts, stones, congenital abnormalities and other deforming disorders of the kidneys, ureters (which carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder) and bladder.

Cystography

Cystography is used to detect bladder stones and abnormalities of the internal contours of the bladder and urethra (which drains urine from the bladder!, or to study the emptying of the bladder. A solution visible on X-ray is introduced through a catheter that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder and, when its cavity is full, X-rays are taken. Abnormal backflow into the ureters can be observed.

If bladder action studies are needed, the patient is asked to urinate while further X-rays are taken to show whether there is any irregularity of bladder contraction or obstruction to the outflow of the urine. Possible problems include bladder stones or tumours, enlargepient of the prostate gland and urethral narrowing. Introduction of the catheter and X-ray-visible solution usually causes some discomfort, and most people find the examination embarrassing.

Intravenous Pyelography (IVP)

Intravenous Pyelography technique is used to follow the blood flow through the kidneys and the flow of urine from kidneys to bladder. A solution visible on X-ray is injected into a vein in the arm, travels through the blood to the kidneys, and outlines their shape and size as it is filtered from blood to urine. X-rays are taken as the urine passes into the urine-collecting ducts within the kidneys, and thence through the ureters into the bladder. The rate at which the dye travels to the ureters and bladder may be recorded as a measure

Risks

  • Allergy to the contrast agent is the only risk.

Purpose

An urography is used to investigate a wide range of problems including:

  • Suspected kidney stones.
  • Pain in the kidneys.
  • Suspected congenital (inherited) abnormalities.
  • Kidney cysts and cancers can be seen.
  Article "tagged" as: