Urinalysis

March 17 20:32 2019 Print This Article

Urinalysis is a method of examining tissues deep inside the body by means of high-frequency sound waves. Ultrasound waves bounce off tissues at different rates according to the density of the tissue. The waves are generated by a small device called a transducer, which is held or moved over the area tobe examined. The transducer also records the echoes of reflected waves and transmits them to a computer, where they are analysed and converted to an image that can be photographed from the computer screen or printed out, interpretation of the image allows tissues of different density to be distinguished from one another.

Because the sound waves have no known effect on the tissue being examined, the scan can be continued over a period of time to observe the move ment of structures within the body, such as the beating of the heart or the progress of a BIOPSY needle towards its target. Continuous observation under ultrasound is called real-time ultrasound

Ultrasound is used to examine soft tissues and fluids within the body, and can detect tumours, stones, cysts and signs of inflammation. Because the sound waves cannot pass through bone or gas. ultrasound is not used to examine parts surrounded by bone (such as the brain and spinal cord) or containing gas (such as the lungs and parts of the gut). Ultrasound scans can be performed in an out-patient clinic or radiology centre, and are quick and noninvasive. The results are available immediately.

Urinalysis results can have many interpretations. They are a red flag, a warning that something may be wrong and should be evaluated further. All patients should avoid intense athletic training or heavy physical work before the test, as these activities may cause small amounts of blood to appear in the urine. A routine urinalysis may be done when you are admitted to the hospital. It may also be part of a wellness exam, a new pregnancy evaluation, or a work-up for a planned surgery. Many urinary constituents are labile, and samples should be tested within one hour of collection or refrigerated. Sugar in the urine is a sign of diabetes (high blood sugar), while chemicals known as ketones can indicate a diabetic complication. Protein in the urine can indicate kidney disease or impaired kidney function. Urinalysis should not be performed while a woman is menstruating or having a discharge.

Why the test is performed?

  • To check for early signs of disease.
  • Urinalysis may also be used to monitor diabetes  or kidney disease.
  • General health screening to detect renal and metabolic diseases.
  • It may be used to check for a urinary tract infection or blood in the urine.
  • Testing for pregnancy.
  • Screening for drug abuse.

How to prepare for the test?

  • A urine sample is collected in an unused disposable plastic cup with a tight-fitting lid.
  • The first morning urine is the most concentrated, and it is more likely to show abnormalities.
  • Some drugs and medications can affect the test.

Risks

  • There are usually no risks.
  • The risk of bladder infection from catheterization with a Robinson catheter is about 3%.
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