Tuberculosis

December 22 21:58 2019 Print This Article

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Only people who are sick with TB in their lungs are infectious. Drug-resistant strains of this deadly disease also contributed to the problem. Travelers who anticipate possible prolonged exposure to tuberculosis (e.g., those who could be expected to come in contact routinely with hospital, prison, or homeless shelter populations) should be advised to have a tuberculin skin test before leaving the United States. Bacteria are spread from person to person through the air.

Since TB is easily transmissible between persons, then the increase in TB in any segment of the population represents a threat to all segments of the population. An increase in high risk, immuno-suppressed individuals, particularly those infected with HIV, lead to an increase in TB cases. Effective therapy and methods of control and prevention of tuberculosis have been developed, but the disease remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world.

When people with TB in their lungs or throat cough, laugh, sneeze, sing, or even talk, the germs that cause TB may be spread into the air. However, not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. Signs of tubercular damage have been found in Egyptian mummies and in bones dating back at least 5,000 years.A rising number of people in the developed world contract tuberculosis because their immune systems are compromised by immunosuppressive drugs, substance abuse, or HIV / AIDS.

People who are not sick have what is called latent TB infection.Over a half of the world’s population now has the TB bacterium in their bodies and new infections are occurring at a rate of one per second. The development of acquired immunity in 2 to 10 weeks results in a halt to bacterial multiplication. Only people with an active pulmonary infection are contagious. Most people who breathe in TB bacteria are able to fight the bacteria and stop it from growing. Unfortunately, the world’s poor those most likely to have TB are also the least likely to receive adequate medical care.

Causes of Tuberculosis

The comman causes of Tuberculosis include the following:

  • Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus ) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Alcoholics, IV drug users and people who are homeless.
  • People who work in or are residents of long-term care facilities (nursing homes, prisons, some hospitals).
  • TB is caused primarily by direct inhalation of infective droplet nuclei.
  • Tuberculosis can develop after inhaling droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze by someone infected with M. tuberculosis.
  • Primary pulmonary TB develops in the minority of people whose immune systems do not successfully contain the primary infection.
  • People who have inhaled the TB bacteria, but in whom the disease is controlled are referred to as infected. They have no symptoms, frequently have a positive skin test, yet cannot transmit the disease to others.

Symptoms of Tuberculosis

Some sign and symptoms related to Tuberculosis are as follows:

  • Coughing up blood or sputum (phlegm from deep inside the lungs).
  • A bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer.
  • Chills.
  • Unintended weight loss.
  • Pain with breathing or coughing (pleurisy).
  • Fever.
  • fatigue.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Swelling in the neck (when lymph nodes in the neck are infected).
  • Shortness of breath and chest pain (in rare cases).
  • Night sweats
  • Pain in the chest.

Treatment of Tuberculosis

Here is list of the methods for treating Tuberculosis:

  • Prehospital providers should be equipped with respiratory masks meeting standards for prevention of TB transmission and should receive annual tuberculin skin testing.
  • Doctors generally use a combination of 4 antibiotics to treat active TB, whether it occurs in the lungs or elsewhere.
  • If tests show that you have TB infection but not active disease, your doctor may recommend preventive drug therapy to destroy dormant bacteria that might become active in the future.
  • Treatment takes that long because the disease organisms grow very slowly and, unfortunately, also die very slowly.
  • If you’re diagnosed with active TB, you’re likely to begin taking four medications -isoniazid, rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane), ethambutol ( Myambutol) and pyrazinamide.
  • For patients who are awake and alert, an oral dose of activated charcoal (1 g/kg) with sorbitol can be administered.
  • Hospitalization may be indicated to prevent the spread of the disease to others until the contagious period has been resolved with drug therapy.