What is the treatment of Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 4?

March 07 22:33 2019 Print This Article

There are many ways by which this disorder can be treated. It involves the use of chemotherapy which is divided into two phases involving the induction and post remission. The induction therapy helps to achieve the complete remission. It reduces the amount of leukemic cells by the undetectable levels and the consolidation therapy aim is to remove the residual undetectable disease and help in a cure. The induction therapy involves the sub types of FAB except the M3 which is usually given induction chemotherapy with cytarabine and anthra cycline. It is also known as the 7 plus 3. In this scenario cytarabine is given for consecutive 7 days and the anthra cycline is given for consecutive 3 days. It is an intra venous push. Normally, more than two third of the patient achieve a remission with this protocol.

The other alternative induction regimen includes the high dose cytarabine alone or along with the investigational agents. There are toxic effects of therapy which include the myelo suppression and there is an increased risk of infection. It should not be given to the elder people. They must be given less intense chemotherapy or they must be offered a palliative care. The M3 is also known as the acute pro myelocytic leukemia. It is treated with the help of ATRA which is referred as an all trans retinoic acid. It is given in addition to the induction chemotherapy.

One must prevent the DIC which can complicate the acute pro myelocytic leukemia treatment.DIC refers to disseminated intra vascular coagulation. The pro myelocytes release the content of their granules into the peripheral circulation. The acute pro myelocytic leukemia can be cured with the well documented treatment protocols. The goal of induction phase is to reach a complete remission. It does not mean that the disease has been cured but it tells that no disease can be diagnosed with available methods. Normally, more than two third of the patient achieve a complete remission. It depends on the prognostic factors.

The length of remission depends on the prognostic features of the leukemia. If there is no consolidation therapy it will lead to the failure of all remissions. After complete remission is achieved leukemic cells are so small in number that it is very hard or impossible to detect them with the help of diagnostic techniques which are used now days. If no further therapy is given the patient relapse so more therapy is required to eliminate the non detectable diseases and prevent the relapse. There is a specific type of post remission therapy in which the patients prognostic factors and general health is taken into the account.

For the good prognosis the patient undergoes additional 3 to 5 day courses of the intensive chemotherapy which is known as the consolidated chemotherapy. In the patients who have a high degree of relapse one can go for the allogenic stem cell transplantation. It is given when the patient can tolerate a transplant and has a suitable donor. The best post remission therapy for intermediate risk AML is less clear and depends on the age, overall health, patient personal value etc. The patients who are not suitable for the stem cell transplant they are given immune therapy along with the histamine and inter leukin. It occurs after the completion of consolidation has reduced the risk of relapse by14 percent and changing into the 50 percent risk of maintained remission.

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