December 22 21:31 2019 Print This Article

Measles, also called rubeola, is a highly contagious – but rare – respiratory infection that’s caused by a virus. Measles has been called the greatest killer of children in history. The highest incidence of measles and its associated morbidity and mortality is observed in developing countries. The measles virus usually spreads when someone comes into contact with droplets from another person that contain the virus. The name “measles” comes from the Middle English “maselen” meaning “many little spots” referring to the rash that is characteristic of measles.

Do not confuse this illness with rubella which is sometimes called ‘German’ or ‘3-day’ measles. Before widespread immunization, measles was so common during childhood that the majority of the population had been infected by age 20. It is spread from one child to another through direct contact with discharge from the nose and throat. The incubation period is 8 to 12 days before symptoms generally appear.

The measles virus initially infects the respiratory epithelium and is transmitted via respiratory droplets. Measles is highly contagious. The measles virus is a single stranded RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus and family Paramyxoviridae. Other names for the measles (rubeola) include the hard measles and (depending on how long you think it lasts) the seven-day measles, the eight-day measles, the nine-day measles, or the ten-day measles, and morbilli.

Measles virus has 2 membrane glycoproteins called hemagglutinin and fusion. In adults, the illness tends to be even more severe. Your child will usually begin to feel a lot better by the fourth day of the rash. Ear and eye infections are common complications. It is not unusual for older patients to require hospital treatment for measles-related pneumonia. It is one of the easiest viruses to spread from person to person.

Causes of Rubeola

The comman causes of Rubeola include the following:

  • Unusual exertion or overuse, including strains or sprains.
  • Injury, including fracture.
  • Occasionally, the virus spreads through the air and not by droplets.
  • Septic arthritis.
  • Tendonitis.
  • Secondary (post-infectious) encephalitis occurs when a virus first infects another part of your body and secondarily enters your brain.
  • The infection is spread by contact with droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat of an infected person.
  • Osteomyelitis.
  • Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

Symptoms of Rubeola

Some sign and symptoms related to Rubeola are as follows:

  • Confusion and disorientation.
  • Very small spots inside the mouth (2-4 days after initial symptoms).
  • Bulging in the soft spots (fontanels) of the skull in infants.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Tiredness.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • tiny white spots inside the mouth (called Koplik’s spots).
  • Photophobia (light sensitivity).
  • Fever.
  • Tremor or convulsions.
  • Red eyes (conjunctivitis).

Treatment of Rubeola

Here is the list of the methods for treating Rubeola:

  • Therapy consists of bed rest, relief of symptoms, and respiratory isolation throughout the communicable period.
  • For fever higher than 100.5°F, provide sponge baths with lukewarm water to the face and upper body.
  • Over-the-counter cough medicine (for approved ages) can help when given as directed.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs can help reduce swelling and pressure within your skull.
  • Effort is focused on relieving the symptoms.
  • drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.
  • giving your child acetaminophen (such as Tylenol, Tempra, or Panedol) or ibuprofen (such as Motrin or Advil) to decrease the fever.
  • Some children may need to take extra vitamin A.
  • A humidifier or vaporizer may ease the cough.