Rubella

December 22 21:30 2019 Print This Article

Rubella commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles – is an infection that primarily affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is a respiratory disease caused by a rubella virus. It is often mild and an attack can pass unnoticed. However, this can make the virus difficult to diagnose. Sometimes rubella is known as German measles, but the word “German” in the name of this disease has nothing to do with the country.

The live-attenuated virus vaccine has decreased the incidence of rubella significantly, thereby decreasing congenital disease. There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening or routine vaccination of young men in settings where large numbers of susceptible young adults of both congregate, such as military bases and colleges. Infected infants may appear normal at birth and fetal malformations may not become apparent for several years. It is estimated that there are 700 000 deaths due to CRS each year.

Rubella is usually a mild viral illness involving the skin, the lymph nodes, and, less commonly, the joints. Its most important complication is congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The disease is usually a benign and inconsequential viral illness unless exposure occurs in utero. Kids ages 5 to 9 were primarily affected, and many cases of congenital rubella occurred as well. The disease is now rare in the United States because of widespread vaccination. Most rubella infections today appear in young, non-immunized adults rather than children.

Rubella virus is relatively unstable and is inactivated by lipid solvents, trypsin, formalin, ultraviolet light, low pH, heat, and amantadine. The primary objective of vaccination against rubella is to prevent infection during pregnancy. Rubella also strikes adults, and outbreaks can occur among teenagers and young adults who have not been immunized.It is usually occurs in the winter and spring and spreads very easily.

Causes of Rubella

The comman causes of Rubella include the following:

  • The disease is caused by a virus that is spread through the air or by close contact.
  • It is spread by close contact between people. Sneezing and coughing can spread the disease.
  • Rubella is spread mainly by breathing in small virus-containing droplets of moisture that have been coughed into the air by an infected person.
  • Risk factors include lack of immunization and exposure to an active case of rubella.
  • It can also be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her unborn child.

Symptoms of Rubella

Some sign and symptoms related to Rubella are as follows:

  • Rash (Appears on the face and then spreads to the trunk and limbs. It appears as pink dots under the skin.
  • Low-grade fever (102 F or lower).
  • Rhinorrhea.
  • General discomfort or uneasiness (malaise).
  • Encephalitis (rare).
  • Bruising (from low platelet count, rare).
  • Inflamed, red eyes.
  • Enlarged, tender lymph nodes at the base of the skull, the back of the neck and behind the ears.
  • Mild conjunctivitis.
  • Flaking, dry skin.

Treatment of Rubella

Here is list of the methods for treating Rubella:

  • Acetaminophen, such as Tylenol, can be given to children and adults for fever.
  • Any pregnant woman who has been exposed to rubella should contact her obstetrician immediately.
  • Treatment for rubella focuses on caring for the specific symptoms, such as drinking extra fluids so you do not become dehydrated and getting plenty of rest.
  • If your baby was born with rubella, take precautions to avoid exposing the baby to people who are susceptible to the disease.
  • Increased fluid intake.
  • To relieve minor discomfort, you can give your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen.