What is the patho physiology of Acute myeloid leukemia?

March 07 22:12 2019 Print This Article

The cells which cause malignancy are the myeloblast. In the normal process of hematopoietic the myeloid precursor cells are the cells which form the myeloblast. The normal myelo blast can form the mature white blood cells. In the case of AML a single myeloblast can accumulate the genetic changes which freeze the cell in the immature form and prevent the differentiation. It is not the sole factor which gives rise to leukemia. It is combined with the other mutations and disturbs the proliferation of gene which results in the uncontrolled growth of the immature clone of cells which lead to the clinical entity of AML.

The diversity of the AML is due to the leukemic transformation which can occur at a number of different steps along the differentiation path. The different classification systems can identify the characters and behavior of leukemic cells which depend on the stage at which the differentiation was stopped. The clinical signs of this disorder occur as a result of the leukemic clones of cell. They affect the normal development of the blood cells in the bone marrow. There are cyto genetic abnormalities seen in the patients with AML. They have a great prognostic significance. The trans location of the chromosome encodes abnormal fusion proteins.

It involves the transcription factors whose altered properties can cause arrest in the differentiation. In the case of pro myelocytic leukemia the process of translocation forms a fusion protein. It binds to the retinoic acid receptor element in the promoters of many myeloid specific genes which inhibit the differentiation. The symptoms of AML are due to the low number of normal blood elements. In few cases patient can develop a solid tumor of the cells which are present outside the marrow and can lead to many symptoms. It depends on the location.

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