What is Nigua? Explain its signs symptoms and prevention technique.

March 12 23:20 2019 Print This Article

What is Nigua?

It is defined as a disorder in which there is an inflammation of the skin caused due to the infection by the female ecto parasite known as chigoe flea. It is caused due to the neglect. It is also known as sand flea. It occurs in the tropical areas. It occurs in many countries of the world. It is given different names in different countries. This disorder leads to the inflammation of skin, the pain is severe and there is an infection seen as a black dot. It occurs at the centre of red lesion which is increased in the size. The white halo surrounds it and there is a loss of epithelium and the flea expands when there is an increase in the size. The incidence of this disease is of a public concern.

What are the signs and symptoms of Nigua?

It includes the pain, swelling, inflammation as well as severe pruritis, one can also see the ulcers as well as lesions. In the centre one can observe black dots. If it is not treated it can lead to secondary infections such as tetanus or gangrene. This organism is transmitted from infection. The flea has the ability not to jump high so this disease is quite common at the toe region. The chances of infection as well as transmission are increased among the people as they do not have a proper house to live. It occurs in the summer in local communities.

What is the presentation of Nigua?

It can cause the deformity in individuals. The death may occur due to secondary infections. In case of humans it is due to the stage of infection which presents the symptoms. The patients do not present them at an early stage as the burrowing of this micro organism is not felt. It occurs due to the use of keratolytic enzymes. The single flea presents in the early stage 2 and redness hardly occurs.

The pain is not so tense and itching can occur. It occurs due to the response as a result of immune. The stage 2 infection also shows irritation also. In the 3 rd stage feces can also be seen. After the penetration pain in the skin as well and there is an increase in the itching and a black nodule. It is surrounded by a white halo in the stretched skin. It should be removed off as the feces remain in the skin only. In the 3 a stage the pain is severe during the night and the nodules are present on the foot and it occurs when the person walks. There is a release of eggs and a water is secreted.

The change in the shape can be seen during the few days after the penetration. The flea may lead to the formation of abscess which is formed in the epithelium. This disorder remains for few months. If the cases are severe ulcers are common. There is a formation of the pus and digits are removed. In severe pain the patient is not able to walk properly.

How Nigua can be diagnosed?

It includes the use of visual examination and a patient history. The parasite must not be removed and one must have a history of the patient. Biopsy must be done but it is not essential. The lesion may be localized and is helpful in the diagnosis. One must have a complete patient travel history.

How Nigua can be treated?

It includes that there is no specific treatment for this disorder. One must identify the cause for it and must act against it. It is a self limiting disease. The flea must be extracted surgically and occur with the help of topical antibiotic. The flea must not be tore and it results in increase in the inflammation. It can also occur if some part of flea is removed. One must use sterile equipment as if they are not clean it can lead to entrance of the pathogens. In few cases oral niridazole can also be used and have proved to be quite benefit. There are few adverse side effects linked with it. In some cases oral ivermectin can also be used.

The uses of tropical drugs have been controversial. In case of super infection one can use multiple antibiotics. The topical treatment can be electro desiccation or cryo therapy. The Vaseline can suffocate the organisms and is quite helpful in treatment of this disorder.

How Nigua can be prevented?

It includes the avoidance of any irritating factor. One must avoid alcohol, tobacco and cigarette smoking. One must have good house hold hygiene and one must use the cemented floor and not a sand floor. Washing must also be done.

Vaccines have not proved to be much successful. But the person with secondary infection must go for a vaccine. One can also use the repellants to cause the flea to run away. There are certain pesticides like DDT which have proved to be quite crucial in the case of removal of flea. Zanzarin is a very successful repellant and is non toxic in the nature.

The preventive strategies must be used carefully so that the side effects can be minimized. There are national campaigns in many countries so that the malaria can be eradicated. One must use DDT in home. The contaminated water must be removed as ecological balance of bacteria must be disturbed.

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