What Is A Multiple Sclerosis?

April 25 22:42 2019 Print This Article

It is defined as a disorder in which there is a deposition of the fat myelin sheath. It occurs around the axons near the spinal cord as well as brain which are damaged. It is also known as MS. It is also known as the disseminated sclerosis. It leads to the loss of nerves as well as formation of scars. The disease starts in the young adults and is quite common in the females. The prevalence rate ranges from 2 to 150. It was first described by the J M Charcot. It was done in the year 1868. It affects the ability of nerve cells in the brain as well as spinal cord to communicate with each other. The cells of nerve communicate by the signals which are electric in nature and are known as the action potential. It goes down to the axon which is covered by the myelin. In this the body immune system attacks and the myelin is injured. When the myelin is lost than the axons cannot conduct the signals.

This disorder is referred to the scars which are present in the brain as well as spinal cord which have myelin in them. The cause of this disorder is still a mystery. It can be due to infections or genetics. It can also occur due to the environmental risk factors. It can also involve the nerve factors and can affect the cognitive as well as physical features. It occurs in various forms and one may also notice new symptoms. They occur alone or in combination. Sometimes the symptoms go away fully and in some cases the nerve damage can be permanent. It occurs as the disease progresses. There is no cure for this disorder and the treatment prevents the attack as well as disability. The medicines have side effects and few patients go for alternative treatments. But there is no scientific study that supports it. There is a prognosis which depends on the sub type as well as the characters of patient disease. There are initial symptoms which rely on the disability of a person. The life expectancy of the patient as well as normal individual is the same.

What are the signs and symptoms of Multiple sclerosis?

It includes the symptoms which go away fully and in some cases the nerve damage can be permanent. It occurs as the disease progresses. It may lead to the weakness of muscles as well as spasm of the muscles. It is known as the hypo aesthesia as well as par aesthesia. There is a problem in the movement, balance as well as the speech. It is known as the ataxia and dysarthria. In later stages one can notice the difficulty in swallowing which is known as the dysphagia. There can be a problem in the vision as well as a fatigue it can be diplopia as well as nystagmus. There can be pain which can be acute as well as chronic. There is an involvement of the bladder as well as bowel problems. The cognitive problems include the depression as well as mood which is not stable. The symptoms can be increased in the case of uhthoffs phenomena. It occurs due to the exposure to high temperatures and there is an electrical sign in which there is an movement of the current at the back side and is known as the lhermittes sign. It is the main character of this disorder.

The main disorder can be measured with the help of EDSS which stands for the expanded disability status scale. The symptoms are in episode and occur in the acute phases. It destroys the nerve later on. The relapses can occur at any time without the warning and with the absence of increasing factors. It can occur due to the triggers and also in the summer as well as spring season. The other causes can be stress or viral infections. It can be due to common colds or influenza viruses. The relapse is also affected by the pregnancy. The relapse rate decreases with trimester of gestation. The chances of relapse are increased with the few months after the delivery. It may not lead to long term disability. The relapse rate is not affected by the potential triggers. The role of relapse triggers has been quite controversial.

What are the causes of Multiple sclerosis?

The cause of this disorder is still a mystery. It can be due to infections or genetics. It can also occur due to the environmental risk factors. It can also involve the nerve factors and can affect the cognitive as well as physical features. It occurs in various forms and one may also notice new symptoms. It mainly occurs due to the genetic differences. It is not a hereditary disease. The chances of having a disease are more in case of siblings as well as the children and parent. It can recur in 20 percent of the cases.

How Multiple sclerosis can be diagnosed?

It includes the use of visual examination and a patient history. It is difficult to diagnose as it is an overlapping disease. One must take a diagnostic criterion for it. There are few medical organizations which have created a diagnostic criterion for it. The disease must be recognized at the first stage. The most popular criteria were the poser as well as Schumacher criteria. There is other popular criterion which is known as the Mc Donald criteria. It depends on the laboratory, clinical as well as radiological data. In some time the clinical data is sufficient alone if one notices a separate episode of the nerve symptoms. It is the main feature of this disorder. After a single attack there may be a need of medical attention.

One can go for the neuro imaging as well as the analysis of cerebral spinal fluid. The other option is the evoked potentials. One can also go for the magnetic resonance imaging in which the de mylenation areas are seen. In this a metal can be given intra venously. One can also test the cerebero spinal fluid with the help of a lumbar puncture. It tells us about the inflammation of the central nervous system. The cerebero spinal fluid tells us about the immune globins which act as an inflammatory markers. The nervous system is not active to the stimulation of different nerves. One can examine the brain response with the help of sensory as well as visual potentials.

How Multiple sclerosis can be treated?

There is no cure for this disorder and the treatment prevents the attack as well as disability. The medicines have side effects and few patients go for alternative treatments. But there is no scientific study that supports it. There is a prognosis which depends on the sub type as well as the characters of patient disease. One can go for the use of cortico steroids in case if the attacks are acute. It must be given intra venously. It is quite effective in the case of short term recovery but in long term recovery it has not proved to be effective. The oral cortico steroids have also been proved to be effective. In severe cases one must go for the plasmapheresis.

There are diseases modifying treatment which are available in the market. It includes the interferon beta 1. One can also go for the compounds of acetate as well as the immune suppressants. The treatment is quite difficult and in the secondary progression the mitoxantrone has proved to be quite effective. The use of interferon has proved to be quite effective. But the most effective is the use of the mitoxantrone. There is a clinical isolated syndrome also which is seen in these cases. The primary form of this disease has not been modified. It has many adverse effects and the most common is irritation at the place of injection and the interferon treatment does it. One can also notice the loss of fat tissue which is referred as the lipo atrophy. The symptoms more or less are quite similar to the influenza.

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