Enterobiasis

August 14 20:10 2019 Print This Article

Enterobius vermicularis, a small nematode, is a common cause of helminthic infestation in the United States. The symptoms are painful itching around the anus, restless sleep, a poor appetite, and a failure to gain weight. However, if the infection is heavy, these symptoms may be correspondingly more severe and also include loss of appetite, restlessness, and insomnia. Enterobiasis, or pinworm infection as it is commonly called, is an intestinal infection caused by the parasitic roundworm called Enterobius vermicularis.The medical name for the pinworm is Enterobius vermicularis. The pinworm is about the length of a staple and lives for the most part within the rectum of humans. School-age children have the highest rates of pinworm infection. They are followed on frequency by preschoolers. High prevalence of enterobiasis is mentioned in many developing countries; therefore, control of this infection in developing countries is still needed.

Enterobiasis is also called seatworm infection or oxyuriasis. The pinworm is about the length of a staple. It lives for the most part within the rectum of humans. It occurs most frequently in school children aged 5 to 10 years and is relatively uncommon in those under two years old. It is the most common worm infection world wide. It is estimated that 200,000,000 people may be infected. It is sometimes possible to see the female worm if the anus of the individual concerned is inspected at night -time. In Thailand, there has been rapid development of sanitation systems in the past decade, resulting in the decline of many infectious diseases. Through this survey, we were able to determine that E vermicularis infection is prevalent among children in these hilltribe villages. Eggs become infectious within 6-8 hours and, under optimum conditions, remain infectious in the environment for up to 3 weeks. According to our findings, an active control program for enterobiasis in our community is necessary.

Causes of Enterobiasis

Here are the list of the possible causes of Enterobiasis:

  • Pinworm infection may be caused by a small, white intestinal worm or more formally, Enterobius vermicularis.
  • Pinworm eggs are spread directly from person to person or by touching bedding, food, or other items contaminated with the eggs
  • Infection can also be spread when a person inhales airborne eggs, but this is rare.
  • Indirect transmission occurs when the patient comes in contact with contaminated articles, such as linens and clothing.
  • When the child scratches the itching anal area, the eggs can get under the child’s fingernails and be transferred to other children, family members, and items in the house.

Symptoms of Enterobiasis

Some sign and symptoms related to Enterobiasis are as follows:

  • Intense itching around the anus.
  • Difficulty sleeping due to the itching that occurs during the night, when the adult worms migrate out through the anus to lay their eggs.
  • Irritated or infected skin around the anus, from constant scratching.
  • Fever.
  • Cough.
  • Blood-tinged sputum.
  • Subconjunctival, retinal, and ungual hemorrhages.
  • Rashes and formication.
  • Encephalitis, myocarditis, nephritis.
  • Excoriation, irritation or infection of the skin around the anus from constant scratching.

Treatment of Enterobiasis

Here is list of the methods for treating Enterobiasis:

  • Usually a single tablet of mebendazole (Vermox) is used for treatment.
  • Identify cause, and treat accordingly.
  • In dracunculiasis, the best treatment is direct removal of worms from tissue, taking care not to break the worm.
  • To control egg infestation, wash hands before meals and after using the toilet, keep fingernails short and clean, wash all bed linen twice weekly, and clean toilet seats daily.
  • Acute intestinal obstruction and perforation in patients with ascariasis may require surgical treatment.
  • Reassurance very important and emphasis that this is not an invasive disease and only symptom is pruritis.
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