What Is A Diphtheria?

April 19 22:59 2019 Print This Article

It is defined as a disorder in which there is a bacterial infection caused by the corny bacterium diptheriae. It is an infection of the upper respiratory part. The causative agent is facultative and anaerobic with a gram positive strain. There is a fever which is accompanied by a sore throat and a formation of false membrane. It occurs on the pharynx, tonsils along with the cavity of nose.

The not so severe form of diphtheria occurs in the skin only. It can also involve muscles and nerves later in the life. It can spread from one individual to the other by contact such as coughing, sneezing or a physical contact. In the developed countries it is not present anymore and has lead by the vaccine which acts against it. The vaccine which is used against it is DPT it stands for diphtheria, pertusis and typhoid. It is given to all school going children. In case of adults booster dose is given. The advantages of vaccines decreases with the age and is mainly given to the travelers who move to the areas where the disease is still present.

What are the signs and symptoms of Diphtheria?

The bacteria remain inactive for few days. It includes the fever which is accompanied by a sore throat and a formation of false membrane. It occurs on the pharynx, tonsils along with the cavity of nose. The not so severe form of diphtheria occurs in the skin only and its duration is for a week. It can also involve muscles and nerves later in the life. The patient has a problem in swallowing. It also includes nausea as well as vomiting. In few cases a swelling is seen in the case of neck which is known as bull neck and these cases can even lead to death.

The patient’s heart beats fast and is listless in nature. It is due to the release of toxin by a bacterium. One can also note a low blood pressure.

How diphtheria can be treated?

It includes the clinical criteria, laboratory criteria and case classification.

The clinical criteria involve the fever which is accompanied by a sore throat and a formation of false membrane.

The laboratory criteria involve the isolation of bacteria which causes this disorder. One can also go for the microscopic examination.

The case classification involves the use of probable which is a compatible clinically case which is not confirmed by the laboratory and is not linked on a study which is based on the population. It also involves the use of confirmed which is a compatible clinically case which is confirmed by the laboratory and is linked on a study which is based on the population.

How diphtheria can be diagnosed?

It includes there is no specific treatment for this disorder but it can be managed. In case the lymph nodes are involved than the swelling in the neck may be seen. The breathing along with swallowing will not be easy. People must take medical care as early as possible. If there is a stoppage in the throat one must go for tracheotomy. The heart may also be involved in the later stages which can lead to failure of heart.

This disorder also involves the eyes, ears and neck with a problem in the respiration. In severe cases the patient is put into the intensive care unit. He is given an anti toxin to diphtheria. If the anti toxins given are delayed it may lead to the death of patient. It should be given as early as possible and must be based on the symptoms and one must not rely on the laboratory report. Antibiotics are not given to affect the healing of infection of diphtheria patients and the role of antibiotics is to remove the bacteria and prevents its transmission. The toxins of diphtheria can spread via the blood stream and can affect multiple organs including the heart as well as kidney. Ultimately, if not treated it can lead to the death of patient.

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