by andywalsh | March 7, 2019 10:14 pm
It is mainly done with the help of complete blood cell count. In this there are more number of white blood cells which is a common finding and leads to the leukemic blast. There is a decrease in the platelets and red blood cell count. One can also see a decrease in the white blood cell count. It is referred as a leucopenia. The diagnosis can also be done by the blood smear count which can show the circulating leukemic blasts. It is a definite diagnosis and requires a bone marrow aspiration along with the biopsy. The blood is examined with the help of light microscopy. The flow cytometry is also helpful and it differentiates between the AML and leukemia. It classifies the sub types of disease. The sample of marrow is helpful to know about the chromosomal translocations. It is a done with the help of cyto genetics or fluorescent in situ hybridization.
There are genetic studies which help us to look for specific mutation in different genes. It influences the outcome of disease. The cyto chemical stains on blood and bone marrow are helped to distinguish the AML from ALL. It also sub classifies the AML. The combination of esterase and myelo peroxidase is very helpful in the identification of AML and differentiating from the ALL. There are nonspecific esterase stains which are used to identify the monocytic component in AML and to differentiate the monoblastic leukemia from ALL.
The diagnosis and classification of this disorder is controversial and can be challenged. It must be done by the hemato pathologist or hematologist. The presence of certain features like auer rods or a specific flow cytometry which can differentiate the AML from other leukemia. If there are no such features the diagnosis may be very difficult. As per the WHO criteria the diagnosis of AML is established by the involvement of more than 20 percent of the cells of blood and marrow. It occurs by leukemic myeloblast. The AML can be differentiated from the pre leukemic conditions by myelo dysplastic or myelo proliferative syndromes. They are treated differently.
The highest curability is seen in the APL which is referred as the acute pro myelocytic leukemia. It requires a unique treatment and it is important to exclude the diagnosis of sub type of leukemia. A fluorescent in situ hybridization is performed on blood and is used for this purpose. It identifies the chromosomal translocation which characterizes the APL.
Source URL: https://alldiseases.org/diagnosis-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia/
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