Cholera

June 12 23:18 2019 Print This Article

Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Vibrios are capable of both respiratory and fermentative metabolism. O 2 is a universal electron acceptor; they do not denitrify.Vibrio cholerae is typically ingested by drinking contaminated water, or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shellfish. It has a short incubation period, from less than one day to five days, and produces an enterotoxin that causes a copious, painless, watery diarrhoea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. The disease is usually spread by contaminated water supplies. Most persons infected with V. cholerae do not become ill, although the bacterium is present in their faeces for 7-14 days. Infection is acquired primarily by ingesting contaminated water or food; person-to-person transmission is rare.

Cholera is very rare in the United States. Although cholera is a very rare disease today, six worldwide outbreaks were documented between 1817 and 1911 that resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths. There are several strains of V. cholerae and the severity of the disease is based on the particular infectious strain. Cholera is not a difficult disease to treat and most people recover well with appropriate oral fluid replacement (hydration). Most vibrios have relatively simple growth factor requirements and will grow in synthetic media with glucose as a sole source of carbon and energy. The main symptom is watery diarrhoea which leads to fluid depletion and death from dehydration. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water. Vomiting also occurs in most patients. It is still unclear whether V. cholerae O139 will extend to other regions, and careful epidemiological monitoring of the situation is being maintained.

Causes of Cholera

Here are the list of the the possible causes of Cholera:

  • Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera.
  • The most common cause of cholera is by someone eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated with the bacteria.
  • Living or traveling in areas where cholera is present.
  • Cholera occurs in epidemics when conditions of poor sanitation, crowding, war, and famine are present.
  • The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.

Symptoms of Cholera

Some sign and symptoms related to Cholera are as follows:

  • Sudden onset of watery diarrhea, up to 1 liter (quart) per hour.
  • Dry mucus membranes or dry mouth.
  • Excessive thirst.
  • Low urine output.
  • Abdominal cramps.
  • Tummy cramps.
  • Dehydration.
  • Leg cramps.
  • Thirst.
  • Abdominal cramps.
  • Nausea.

Treatment of Cholera

Here is list of the methods for treating Cholera:

  • Antibiotic medications help shorten the course of the disease.
  • The first priority in treating cholera is to replace fluids and electrolytes lost through diarrhea.
  • The herb nutmeg is a valuable remedy for dehydration caused by cholera.
  • Cholera may be simply and successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea. Treatment
  • The main treatment for cholera is to drink plenty of fluids to rehydrate.
  • The fresh juice of bitter gourd is an effective medicine in the early stages of cholera.
  • The powdered root of rough chaff, botanically known as Achyranthes aspera, is also helpful in cholera.

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