What are the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Atelectasis?

April 25 21:32 2019 Print This Article

What are the causes of atelectasis?

It includes the post surgical phase which hampers the breathing after the surgery of abdomen. It also shows a splinting. The people who smoke and are older in age are at risk of this disorder. It also tells about the blockage of bronchiole or bronchus which occur within the air way and involving foreign body and mucus plug alongside the wall from tumor involving the squamous cell carcinoma. One can also observe a compression from the tumor, lymph nodes and tubercle. Other cause can be a decrease in the surfactant which spreads during the process of inspiration and leads to increase in the surface tension which may lead to the collapse of small alveoli. It may also occur due to the suction involving sputum as air is withdrawn from lungs. There are different types of this disorder which include the collapse of alveoli, resorption, compression, micro atelectasis and contraction atelectasis. The other cause of this disorder is pulmonary embolism known as the PE.

What are the symptoms of atelectasis?

It includes the cough, pain in the chest and low oxygen saturation. One also observes a difficulty in breathing along with a fever. There is a transudate type of pleural effusion. One also observes a cyanosis with an increase in heart rate.

What is the diagnosis of atelectasis?

It includes the chest x ray mainly. But in the cases of post surgical one must go for bronchoscopy and computed tomography.

What is the treatment of atelectasis?

It includes the focus on the main cause. Physiotherapy is quite helpful in treating the post surgical disorder. One must rely on deep breathing with an encouraging coughing. The breathing exercise is done with the help of an incentive spirometer. One must encourage ambulation by an improvement in the inflation of lung. The people with problems in the chest or nerves show a shallow breathing. It occurs for long time and there are certain devices which can help to breath. There is a method which is known as the continuous positive air way pressure in which one provides an air or oxygen with pressure which can be given through a nose or face mask. It makes sure that the alveoli must be swollen at all times and must not collapse. There is a need of extra respiratory support with the help of mechanical ventilator.

The primary treatment for acute form of this disorder involves the focus on the main cause. Bronchoscope is quite helpful in removing the blockage which is caused by the coughing or suctioning. An infection needs the help of antibiotics and is quite helpful in the chronic cases of this disorder. In few cases the affected parts of the lungs can be removed by the surgery. It occurs in the cases of chronic infections and is followed by the disability or bleeding. The air way can be blocked by the tumor and it can be relieved by the surgery, chemo therapy, radio therapy and a laser therapy. They prevent this disorder from progressing and in the development of recurring obstructive pneumonia. After the surgery this disorder can be prevented by the use of incentive spirometer.