What are the causes of Alzheimer’s disease?

April 19 22:46 2019 Print This Article

There are three main different theories regarding it. The oldest theory is based upon the drugs. It is known as cholinergic hypothesis. This disorder is due to the decrease in the synthesis of acetylcholine which helps in the conduction of nerves. This hypothesis is not accepted as the medicines which are used to overcome the deficiency of acetylcholine has not been effective. The other cholinergic effects are the accumulation of amyloid which leads to the inflammation of nerves.

The main cause of this disease is the accumulation of amyloid beta as per the amyloid hypothesis. It was stated in the year 1991. The gene is present on the chromosome 21 and plays an important role in the formation of amyloid precursor protein known as APP. There is a presence of extra gene in the people who are suffering from the down syndrome and has a same copy. It occurs when the individual is of age 40. The main risk factor for this disease is APOE4. It is genetic in nature. In the brain there is a formation of amyloid before the symptoms of this disorder appear. The clinical symptoms occur after there is a deposition of amyloid beta protein. A vaccine was used in the different experiments to clear the amyloid deposits but it does not have good results in the cases of dementia. The disease causing form of the beta protein lead to accumulation of the monomers. These monomers bind to the receptors of surface on nerves. They change the shape of connection of nerves and effect the communication of nerves.

In the year 2009, there was a new theory given that the relative of beta protein is the main causative factor in the disease. The mechanism of amyloid is related to the nerve connections in brain. It occurs in the early life and it is increased as the process of aging goes on. It affects the neurons. There is a fragment of APP which goes inside the peptide and breaks it. It occurs with the help of enzyme. It is N APP. It goes through to the self destructive path by binding to the receptors of nerve. It is known as death receptors. It is expressed through the brain. It is affected by the Alzheimer disease. This pathway can be taken hostage by the process of aging which occurs through the brain. The beta amyloid plays a crucial role in the function of nerves.

Some of the studies also say that there is no correlation between the deposits in the brain and the effect on neurons. It is well supported by the tau hypothesis which states that the disorder starts with a protein known as tau protein. In this process there is over phosphorrylation involving the tau protein. The nerve fibers are formed inside the nerve cells. When the micro tubules break down there is a big collapse of the transport system of neurons. It may lead to the bio chemical problems which may lead to the death of cells. The apoE gene initiation occurs by the herpes simplex virus type I.

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