Candidiasis

June 09 23:43 2019 Print This Article

Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a fungal infection of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. Candidiasis can range from superficial disorders such as diaper rash to invasive, rapidly fatal infections in immuno compromised hosts. These fungi are found almost everywhere in the environment. Candidiasis, also known as a “yeast infection” or VVC, is a common fungal infection that occurs when there is overgrowth of the fungus called Candida. The clinical manifestations may be acute, subacute or chronic to episodic. There are more than 20 species of Candida, the most common being Candida albicans. The name ‘candida’ refers to the white colour of the organisms in culture. Candidal infection is known as ‘candidiasis’, ‘candidosis’ or ‘moniliasis’.

Candida species are ubiquitous fungi found throughout the world as normal body flora. These fungi are very common, but do not normally cause health problems because a fully functioning immune system can keep them suppressed. Usually, Candida is kept under control by the native bacteria and by the body’s immune defenses. Candida is always present in the body in small amounts. Candida species are true opportunistic pathogens that exploit recent technological advances to gain access to the circulation and deep tissues. Candidiasis can affect many parts of the body, causing localized infections or larger illness, depending on the person and his or her general health. Although candida is present in 50% of healthy mouths, it causes infection (candidiasis) when increased numbers of yeast cells invade the mucosa (the name for the moist skin inside body openings). Candida depends on a living host for survival.

Causes of Candidiasis

Here are the list of some possible causes of Candidiasis:

  • It is caused by a fungus called Candida albicans.
  • Multiple pregnancies.
  • Oral antibiotics kill off the “good” bacteria in the intestine, which allows candida to proliferate.
  • Alcohol.
  • Chemicals and toxins.
  • Thyroid disease.
  • Use of oral contraceptives, steroids, antacids, and anti-ulcer medications.

Symptoms of Candidiasis

Some sign and symptoms related to Candidiasis are as follows :

  • Esophagitis – Candida esophagitis may make swallowing difficult or painful, and it may cause chest pain behind the breastbone (sternum).
  • A sensation of food sticking in your throat or the middle of your chest.
  • Possible fever if the infection spreads beyond your esophagus.
  • Deep candidiasis – When Candida spreads to the bloodstream, it may cause a wide range of symptoms, from unexplained fever to shock and multiple organ failure.
  • Painful urination.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Muscle pain.
  • Muscle weakness.
  • Obesity.

Treatment of Candidiasis

Here is list some of the methods for treating Candidiasis:

  • Doctors treat thrush with topical, antifungal medications such as nystatin (Mycostatin and others) and clotrimazole.
  • Esophagitis – Candida esophagitis is treated with ketoconazole, itraconazole (Sporanox) or fluconazole.
  • Systemic candidias is requires intravenous treatment at a hospital.
  • The doctor can prescribe fluconazole (Diflucan), an oral medication. Diflucan is a single-dose treatment.
  • If the infection has spread throughout your body or you have HIV/AIDS, stronger medications may be used, such as ketoconazole (Nizoral) or fluconazole (Diflucan).
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