Brucellosis

June 09 23:34 2019 Print This Article

Brucellosis is a disease caused by contact with animals carrying the brucella bacteria.It can also cause long-lasting or chronic symptoms that include recurrent fevers, joint pain, and fatigue. This last method of transmission is remarkably efficient given the relatively low concentration of organisms (as few as 10-100 bacteria) needed to establish infection in humans and has brought renewed attention to this old disease. It is a zoonotic infection transmitted from animals to humans by ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal, or inhalation of aerosols.

These bacteria are primarily passed among animals, and they cause disease in many different vertebrates. The bacteria enters the body through mucous membranes and spreads from there to lymph nodes and the spleen. Everyone is susceptible to the bacteria and may get the disease if exposed. It is more likely to be found in people associated with livestock. The global burden of human brucellosis remains enormous; it causes more than 500,000 infections per year worldwide.

Brucella usually infects animals, and humans can become infected by direct contact with infected animals or their milk.Bruce first isolated Brucella melitensis in 1887. Since then, brucellosis has become an emerging disease in many parts of the world. It is found throughout the world. The interest in brucellosis has been increasing because of the growing phenomena of international tourism and migration, in addition to the potential use of Brucella as a biological weapon. It is one of the most serious diseases of livestock.

Development of brucellae as a weapon was halted in 1967, and President Nixon later banned development of all biological weapons on November 25, 1969. The rapidity with which it spreads and the fact that it is transmissible to humans makes it all the more serious. In animals this disease is also known as contagious abortion and infectious abortion . Sever infections of the central nervous systems or lining of the heart may occur.

Causes of Brucellosis

The comman causes of Brucellosis include the following:

  • Brucellosis is caused by the bacterium Brucella. This bacterium infects domesticated animals.
  • Having direct contact with the secretions, excretions, or carcasses of infected animals.
  • Breastfeeding (passed from mother to infant).
  • Inhaling the bacteria.
  • Drinking unpasteurized milk.
  • It may also cause reoccurring fever and arthritis.

Symptoms of Brucellosis

Some sign and symptoms related to Brucellosis are as follows:

  • Malaise.
  • Lethargy.
  • Severe headache and backache.
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • Chills.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Joint pain.
  • Malaise.
  • Lethargy.
  • Weight loss.
  • Fatigue.

Treatment of Brucellosis

Here is list some of the methods for treating Candidiasis:

  • A combination antibiotic therapy, such as doxycycline and rifampin or an aminoglycoside, is recommended to treat and prevent relapse of infection.
  • As the symptoms generally are vague and presentation rarely life threatening, emergency medical service (EMS) care should focus on stabilization, as needed, and transport.
  • If the patient presents as part of a known, immediately proximate bioterrorism incident, EMS providers should notify the hospital to undertake appropriate decontamination and isolation measures.
  • Provide supportive care for any specific symptoms and obtain appropriate tests targeted to affected organ systems as determined by history and physical.
  • Corticosteroids – these drugs, including prednisone, can help control symptoms (especially inflammation).
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