What Is Agoraphobia?

May 01 11:33 2019 Print This Article

It is defined as a disorder in which there is an involvement of the fear of public and open places. It is mainly an anxiety disorder. It is also considered to be a complication of the panic attack. The one way causal relationship between the panic attacks and this disorder is not correct. It may arise as the fear of being attacked. It occurs in the setting when there is no escape. It can also occur due to the social anxiety. So, people with this disorder avoid public gatherings and would like to leave alone. They do not go to the large open places like the shopping malls etc. There are very few places to hide. In very few cases the sufferer may confined to his place and have a difficulty in moving to the safe place.

What is the definition of agoraphobia?

It is defined as a disorder in which there is an anxious environment which is not familiar. He has little or no control. The precipitating factors of the anxiety include the wide open spaces, crowds and a travelling to short distances. This disorder is also in associated with the fear of social embarrassment. It can also lead to the panic attack and one looks distraught in the public. It is also referred as the social phobia or social anxiety disorder. They all are not social in the nature.

Some of them have a fear of open space. It is also defined as a fear which can be terrifying sometimes who experience many multiple attacks. It is also known as a symptom of the social professional who has a check for the diagnosis of panic disorder. The other symptoms which can lead to this disorder are obsessive compulsive disorder and a post traumatic stress can also be caused by this disorder. The irrational fear can also lead to it. The patient has a fear of particular place as he has gone through a same attack again at same place. He does not go to that location. He is suffering from this disorder and can do anything to avoid that location.

What are the gender differences in agoraphobia?

It includes the females mostly in women. It is twice as common in the females as compared to the males. The differences are due to the socio cultural factors which allow a more expression of the avoidance strategies in case of females. Women look for the help and can be diagnosed easily. Men are more likely to abuse alcohol and can lead to the reaction of anxiety. He is known as alcoholic. There are female sex roles which help the women to have an anxiety by involving the dependent and helpless behaviors. There are few researches which show that there is no clear explanation to tell us about the gender differences.

What are the causes and contributing factors of agoraphobia?

It includes the unknown causes. It is mainly linked to the anxiety disorder and is a stress full condition. The other contributing factor can be substance abuse. This disorder may also occur due to the chronic use of tranquilizers and the sleeping medicine like benzo diazepine. One must treat for the dependence of benzo diazepine and after sometime the symptoms disappear. There are few researches which show a link between the agora phobia and a difficulty in the orientation. The individuals without this disorder can maintain the balance with the help of visual, vestibular and proprioceptive system. Most of the patients with this disorder have weak of visual, vestibular and proprioceptive system. If the vision is not proper than the patient with this disorder can become disoriented and it can happen in the wide open spaces or crowds. This process is quite controversial. In the virtual reality studies there is an irregular processing of the change in audio visual data. It can be compared with the controls.

What are the alternative theories of agoraphobia?

It includes the attachment theory of agoraphobia and spatial theory of agoraphobia.

What is the attachment theory of agoraphobia?

It includes this disorder with an attachment deficit. It means there is a temporary loss of the individual ability to tolerate the separations from a secure base spatially. There are current studies in this field which says that the main theories of this disorder are the attachment theory of agoraphobia and spatial theory.

What is the spatial theory of agoraphobia?

It includes the social sciences. It is a clinical bias in this disorder research. There are few branches of the social science which includes the geography and has a good interest in the phenomena of spatial. There is another approach which links the development of this disorder with the modernity.

What is the diagnosis of agoraphobia?

It includes the panic attack which follows this type of disorder. The people who go to a mental health specialist show this type of disorder. It has been established by an American Association of the Psychiatrics in the year 1998. This disorder is mainly under stood by the behavior which is due to multiple repeated panic attacks. It also shows anxiety and the pre occupation with the attacks. It may lead to the avoidance of situations in which there is a chance of panic attack to occur. There are few cases where the patients of this disorder do not meet a criterion which helps to diagnose the panic disorder. It is used in the formal diagnosis of this disorder which has no history of panic disorder. It is referred as the primary agora phobia.

There is a DSM IV TR diagnostic criterion which helps to know about this disorder. It includes the anxiety in places or situations in which the escape is quite difficult. It can lead to an embarrassing situation. In this case the help is not available and may occur in the case of having by chance or situational proposed attack which is panic in the nature. It involves the situations which involve the outside of home, a crowd, standing alone, on the bridge, travelling in a bus or train. The situation is avoided by not travelling. It can also be done by distress or anxiety. In this the attack is panic like with resembling symptoms. It needs a presence of the partner.

The avoidance of the anxiety is not in link with another mental disorder known as social phobia. It occurs as a result of fear of embarrassment. There is a specific phobia in which there is an avoidance of the situations like a single individual in the elevator. There can be obsessive compulsive disorder which includes the avoidance of dirt in an individual who is obsessive with the contamination. There can be post traumatic stress disorder which includes the avoidance of stimuli which is linked with a stress. There can be separation anxiety disorder which includes the avoidance of leaving home etc.

The diagnosis can also be established by the association with panic attacks. It occurs when an individual travel to a place. They have a fear that they are out of control or feel embarrassment. It is difficult to obtain. When a panic attack occurs there is a release of large amount of epinephrine which can lead to the body’s fight or flight response. It is sudden in onset and reaches its saturation point after 10 to 15 minutes. It does not last more than half an hour. It symptoms includes the palpitations, increase in heart beat, sweating, trembling, vomiting along with the dizziness.

What is the association of panic attacks with agoraphobia?

It includes the association with panic attacks. It occurs when an individual travel to a place. They have a fear that they are out of control or feel embarrassment. It is difficult to obtain. When a panic attack occurs there is a release of large amount of epinephrine which can lead to the body’s fight or flight response. It is sudden in onset and reaches its saturation point after 10 to 15 minutes. It does not last more than half an hour. It symptoms includes the palpitations, increase in heart beat, sweating, trembling, vomiting along with the dizziness. One also observes tightness in the throat and shortness in breath. There are many patients which fear of dying or can lose their emotions along with the behavior.

What is the treatment of agoraphobia?

It includes the similar options for agora phobia and disorder in the panic. The cognitive behavioral treatment includes the exposure as well as cognitive restructuring. In the exposure treatment there is a long lasting relief to most of the patients. It occurs with panic disorder and agora phobia. There is a disappearance of the remaining and sub clinical avoidance. It does not include the panic attacks alone. This must be the aim of exposure therapy. One can also go for a systemic de sensitization.

In the cognitive restructuring there is a good response to treat this disorder. In this one type of treatment is replaced by the other. It is more accurate and beneficial.

In the relaxation technique there is an involvement of the specific skills for this disorder to develop. It can be used to stop or prevent the symptoms of this disorder.

The psycho pharmaceutical treatment involves the use of anti depressant medicines. They are the most commonly used medicines for this disorder. It includes mainly the SSRI which denotes to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It includes the sertraline, paroxetine along with a fluoxetine. The other medicines which are used in the treatment of this disorder are benzo diazepine tranquilizers, MAO inhibitors and tri cyclic anti depressants.

There are other alternative treatments which involve the de sensitization of the movement of eye and re programming which is referred as the EMDR. It is one of the possible treatments of this disorder. But the results are not good. The movement of eye and re programming which is referred as the EMDR is done in the cases of cognitive behavioral approaches. It is not effective in the cases where this disorder develop following the trauma.

Most of the people with this disorder get an advantage from the self help or a support group. It can be done with the help of telephone conference call and online groups which can be of good help for the house bound individuals. There are many problems which can be shared and must be done along with the help tools for the management. Most of the stress management and other type of medicine practices can be used to do various types of anxiety disorders. They can calm themselves and may increase the effect of therapy. There are services to others which can help the individual from self absorption and can go with the anxiety problems. There are few visual techniques which can also be helpful. Aerobic exercises can prove to be quite beneficial. There are certain drugs like caffeine which have the ability to counter the cold medicines. They have ability to increase the anxiety symptoms and must be avoided.

  Article "tagged" as: