Acute Glomerulonephritis

June 09 23:01 2019 Print This Article

Acute glomerulonephritis refers to a specific set of renal diseases in which an immunologic mechanism triggers inflammation and proliferation of glomerular tissue. Glomerulonephritis (GN) is the term generally reserved for the variety of renal diseases in which inflammation of the glomerulus, manifested by proliferation of cellular elements, is secondary to an immunologic mechanism. Each kidney is composed of about 1 million microscopic filtering “screens” known as glomeruli that selectively remove uremic waste products. Chronic glomerulonephritis can develop over a period of 10-20 years and is most often associated with other systemic disease, including diabetes, malaria, hepatitis, or systemic lupus erythematosus. It can be acute, which means it occurs suddenly, or chronic, meaning symptoms develop gradually and continue over a number of years. It may be asymptomatic , or present with hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood resp. protein in the urine).

Acute nephritic syndrome is a group of disorders that cause inflammation of the internal kidney structures (specifically, the glomeruli). There are many recognised types, divided in acute, subacute or chronic glomerulonephritis. Causes are infectious (bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens), autoimmune or paraneoplastic. Acute nephritic syndrome is the clinical correlate of acute glomerular inflammation. Most forms of AGN are mediated by an immunologic process. Acute glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli, bundles of tiny vessels inside the kidneys. Chronic glomerulonephritis can develop over a period of 10-20 years. The effect of these variables on the outcome of the disease is studied here.The inflammation is immunologically mediated with immune deposits in the glomerulus. Onset of symptoms is usually acute. The unfavorable prognosis of the disease is due to early mortality and a rapidly progressive clinical course.

Causes of Acute Glomerulonephritis

Here are the list of the possible causes of Acute Glomerulonephritis:

  • The most common cause is postinfectious Streptococcus species (ie, group A, beta-hemolytic).
  • Cryoglobulinemia.
  • Goodpasteur’s syndrome (membranous antiglomerular basement membrane disease).
  • The edema first collects in those sites where tissue resistance is low, such as the periorbital area.
  • Bacterial causes other than group A streptococci may be diplococcal, streptococcal, staphylococcal, or mycobacterial.
  • Vasculitis (e.g., Wegener’s granulomatosis, periarteritis nodosa).
  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.

Symptoms of Acute Glomerulonephritis

Some sign and symptoms related to Acute Glomerulonephritis are as follows:

  • Cough with blood-tinged sputum.
  • Fever.
  • Joint or muscle pain.
  • Blood in the urine (urine appears dark, tea colored, or cloudy.)
  • facial swelling.
  • swelling around the eye socket.
  • Slow, sluggish, lethargic movement.
  • Difficulty breathing , especially at night, while lying down, or from exercise.
  • Foamy urine.
  • Seizures.
  • Decreased alertness , drowsiness, confusion.

Treatment of Acute Glomerulonephritis

Here is list some of the methods for treating Candidiasis:

  • In most patients, acute glomerulonephritis is not an acute life-threatening emergency if the patient has normal vital signs and lacks underlying illness.
  • For glomerulonephritis, treatment consists of antibiotics for any bacterial infection and rest.
  • In the presence of fluid overload, diuretics may be used to increase output with urination.
  • Hospitalization is required for diagnosis and treatment of many forms of acute nephritic syndrome.
  • Medications may include anti-hypertensive medications to control high blood pressure.
  • Corticosteroids or other anti-inflammatory medications may be used to reduce inflammation.